Bacteria represent most of the biodiversity and play key roles in virtually every ecosystem. In doing so, bacteria act as part of complex communities shaped by interactions across all domains of life. Here, we report on direct interactions between bacteria and dreissenid mussels, a group of invasive filter-feeders threatening global aquatic systems due to high filtration rates. Previous studies showed that dreissenids can impact bacterial community structure by changing trait distributions and abundances of specific taxa. However, studies on bacterial community effects were conducted using water from Lake Michigan (an oligotrophic lake) only, and it is unknown whether similar patterns are observed in systems with differing nutrient regimes. We conducted ten short-term dreissenid grazing experiments in 2019 using water from two eutrophic lake regions—the western basin of Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. Predation by dreissenids led to decline in overall bacterial abundance and diversity in both lakes. However, feeding on bacteria was not observed during every experiment. We also found that traits related to feeding resistance are less phylogenetically conserved than previously thought. Our results highlight the role of temporal, spatial, and genomic heterogeneity in bacterial response dynamics to a globally important invasive filter feeder.