Congress designed the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as a partnership of 17 Federal agencies and 11 regional systems. Through collaborative projects and shared objectives, these partnerships improve the understanding of the coastal ocean environment by increasing the data available for modeling and analysis, improving forecasting capabilities, and through new decision support tool innovations. This chapter describes the benefits of IOOS partnerships and highlights five case studies. The case studies focus on enhancements to fisheries management, drinking water management, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and the benefits of a dedicated coastal ocean modeling testbed that intentionally brings together the research and operational communities.